Why Airlines Traverse the North Pole but Avoid the South Pole

Have you ever imagined boarding a flight from Perth, Australia, to Buenos Aires, Argentina, soaring directly over the icy expanse of the South Pole? It’s a route that remains untraveled by commercial airlines.

Why is this so?

The answer lies not just in the frigid temperatures of Antarctica but also in a complex web of aviation regulations, technical challenges, and practical considerations.

The Cold Hard Truth About Polar Flights

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Image Credit: Mark Van Scyoc/Shutterstock.

The extreme cold is a significant challenge for flights over Antarctica, prompting the FAA to establish specific regulations for “polar routes,” which include areas above 78 degrees North or below 60 degrees South.

According to the FAA’s Advisory Circular AC 120-42B (ref), these regulations are part of the Extended Operations (ETOPS and Polar Operations) guidelines. They require special training for pilots and crew to ensure they can effectively operate and maintain aircraft in severe cold conditions.

This training includes understanding the unique operational issues associated with polar flights, such as the impact of cold temperatures on aircraft systems and fuel management. Additionally, crews must have access to cold-weather anti-exposure suits, essential for emergency landings in these harsh and remote environments.

The FAA’s guidelines emphasize the need for comprehensive preparation and planning for polar operations, ensuring the safety and reliability of these challenging flights.

Navigational Complexities & Fuel Concerns

Polar flights also demand unique navigational techniques (ref). The magnetic unreliability near the poles necessitates using true heading charts instead of traditional magnetic navigation.

This is particularly crucial in areas like the Northern Control Area, where magnetic compass performance is most erratic. Some aircraft, like the G450, automatically switch to True heading above certain latitudes (N73° or S60°). Additionally, monitoring fuel temperature becomes critical in polar operations.

Pilots may need to climb or descend to warmer air layers, alter the route to warmer regions, or increase cruise airspeed as fuel temperatures approach the freezing point. These actions are essential to prevent fuel from reaching its freezing point, which can vary depending on the fuel type and geographical region.

Fuel temperatures typically increase approximately one degree for every 0.02 increase in Mach speed. These measures ensure unobstructed fuel flow and prevent critical operational issues.

The ETOPS Challenge

The Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards (ETOPS) significantly impact the feasibility of Antarctic flights. ETOPS is a set of regulations determining how long a twin-engine aircraft can fly from a diversionary airport with only one operable engine.

Initially, twin-engine aircraft were restricted to within 60 minutes of a diversionary airport, limiting their long-haul capabilities. However, aircraft and engine technology advancements have led to increased ETOPS ratings.

For instance, the Airbus A350-900 broke records with an ETOPS of 370 minutes, allowing nearly global coverage, except for some parts of Antarctica. This is because the remoteness of Antarctica poses a significant challenge, with the nearest suitable diversion airport being thousands of miles away.

Even with the highest ETOPS ratings, such as ETOPS 370, the stringent requirements for diversion airport proximity make legal and safe flights over large portions of the Antarctic unfeasible for commercial twin-engine aircraft. This limitation underscores the challenges of operating flights in remote and inhospitable regions.

Practicality & Demand

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Image Credit: aappp/Shutterstock.

Beyond regulatory and technical hurdles, there’s a simple question of practicality and demand.

Most international air traffic occurs in the Northern Hemisphere, where most of the world’s population resides. There are very few routes over Antarctica that make logistical sense.

While some flights skirt the Antarctic coast, none venture close to the pole. For instance, the hypothetical Perth to Buenos Aires route lacks sufficient demand to justify such a flight’s complex and costly operation.

The dream of flying over the South Pole remains just that for most travelers. The combination of extreme weather conditions, navigational challenges, stringent regulations, and practical considerations makes commercial flights over Antarctica a rarity.

While the aviation industry continues to evolve, the unique challenges of polar flights ensure that these routes remain among the most intriguing and elusive in air travel.

Martha A. Lavallie
Martha A. Lavallie
Author & Editor | + posts

Martha is a journalist with close to a decade of experience in uncovering and reporting on the most compelling stories of our time. Passionate about staying ahead of the curve, she specializes in shedding light on trending topics and captivating global narratives. Her insightful articles have garnered acclaim, making her a trusted voice in today's dynamic media landscape.